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  • Scholar's Advances in Animal and Veterinary Research
    SAAVR Current Issue (Vol: 01, Issue: 01)

    Accepted Articles

        An Augmented Review about Lighting programs for Broiler Production

        Sultan Mahmood,Ghulam Abbas*, Fawwad Ahmad and Ahsan ul Haq

        *Department of Poultry Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
        *Corresponding author


        Pages: 1-13
        Concern over lighting programme for broiler is increasing from few last decades, but still there is a lot of variability in this regard for profitable chicken farming. Currently, there is a wide variation in lighting programs i.e. duration, intensity, source, wavelength. Many studies have shown an impact of light sources on performance, immune response, slaughter profile, leg problems, skeletal abnormalities and physiology. Commercial birds at farms are often reared at too much higher light intensities than the actual demand thus negatively affects the welfare of birds also regress profit of farmers. Now a day’s LED (light emitting diodes) are considered efficient lights and are considered functional superiority over others light sources. The aim of this review article is to update research on lighting programs for broiler production and to provide suggestions about economical light usage.

        Comparative Effect of Light Emitting Diode Versus Traditional Light Source on Performance, Slaughter Characteristics, Immunity and Gland’s Weight of Broiler

        Fawwad Ahmad¹, Ahsan-ul-Haq¹, Sultan Mahmood¹, Syed adil Zafar¹, Muhammad Yousaf¹, Muhammad Ashraf¹, Ghulam Abbas,*¹ and Razia Abdul Majeed Qureshi²

        *Department of Poultry Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, ²Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Pakistan,


        Pages: 14-19
        In the present study, we addressed effect of different light sources on performance of chicken. Two hundred fifty day old broiler were purchased from which one hundred sixty chicks of middle weight range were selected and distributed randomly into different light treatment groups: A, Fluorescent (FC); B, Light Emitting Diode (LED); C, Incandescent (INC) and D, Compact Fluorescent (CF). Each treatment received four replicates having ten chicks per replicate. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressed meat weight, thigh weight, liver weight, gizzard weight, heart weight, intestinal weight, bursa weight, thymus weight and immunity against ND and IBD were affected (P < 0.05) by light sources whereas shank length, shank weight and keel length were not affected (P > 0.05). Chicken received incandescent light showed higher mortality (13%) whilst those of received LED light showed only 3% mortality. These results indicated that LED has beneficial effect on welfare of broiler and also helpful in minimizing the production cost therefore must be used in the modern broiler husbandry.

        Comparative Therapeutic Efficacy of Ivermectin and Piperazine Citrate against Ascaridia galli in Commercial and Rural Poultry

        Zia-ur-Rehman1, Ashar Mahfooz1, Tanveer Ahmad1, Sultan Mahmood2, Ghulam Abbas2, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem*1, Asif Iqbal3, Faisal Siddique** and Muhammad Fiaz***

        *¹Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery; ²Department of Poultry Science, ³Department of Parasitology, **Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040-Pakistan and ***Livestock and Dairy Development Department Pakistan
        *Corresponding author


        Pages: 20-24
        The research was conducted to investigate the comparative therapeutic efficacy of Ivermectin and Piperazine citrate against Ascaridia galli in commercial layer birds and rural poultry. Two experiments were conducted, each representing commercial layer birds and rural poultry, respectively. Each experiment consisted of 4 groups of 15 birds each, named A, B, C, D, (Experiment-1) and W, X, Y and Z (Experiment-2). At first, Albendazole was administered, @ dose of 14mg /kg, in all birds to make them parasite free. In groups A, B, C, W, X and Y, Ascaridia galli infection was inoculated, PO, @ dose rate of 2500 embryonated eggs/bird, using a crop tube. Five birds, from each treatment group were euthanized at day 28th of confirm parasitic infestation. Ivermectin @ dose rate of 200µg/kg was given PO, in birds of treatment groups A and W and Piperazine citrate, @ dose rate of 32 mg/100 kg, PO, in birds of treatment groups C and Z. At post treatment day 5th and 10th, five birds were euthanized from each group to detect the comparative therapeutic efficacy of anthelmintic used. Piperazine citrate presented better efficacy against Ascaridia galli as compared to Ivermectin.

        Comparative Effect of Light Intensity on Behavior and Blood Profile in Broilers

        Sultan Mahmood¹, Fawwad Ahmad¹, Ghulam Abbas¹, Razia Abdual Majeed Qureshi** Muhammad Fiaz*** Tanveer Ahmad², Muhammad Ijaz Saleem² and Muhammad Khurram Shahzad³

        ¹Department of Poultry Science; *²Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery; ³Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, **Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of Punjab, Pakistan, ***Livestock and Dairy Development Department Pakistan


        Pages: 25-29
        The objective of the study was to describe the effects of varying levels of light intensities on behavioral and blood profile in broilers. Variable light intensity treatments, T1 (20 lux) was given at first week and 5 lux, from 2-6 weeks, to broilers in group A, T2 (20 lux) at first week and 10 lux from 2-6 weeks, to group B, T3 (20 lux) at first week and 20 lux from 2-6 week to group C, T4 (20 lux) at first week and 30 lux from 2-6 weeks to group D, and T5 (20 lux) at first week and 40 lux from 2-6 week to group E birds. The results revealed that non-significant effect (P>0.05) of light intensity variations on eating behavior at weeks 2, 4, 5 and 6, drinking behavior at weeks 2, 5 and 6., standing behavior at week 2 and 5, preening behavior at weeks 2, 3, 5 and 6, and aggressive behavior at weeks 3, 4, and 5. The eating behavior at week 3, drinking behavior at weeks 3 and 4, standing behavior at weeks 3, 4 and 6, preening behavior at week 4 and aggressive behavior at weeks 2 and 6 were significantly affected (P < 0.05) by light of varying intensities. The effects on cholesterol and T4 hormone levels, with variations in light intensity were significant effected, whilst it had non-significant effects on cortisol, urea, creatinine, T3 level, respiratory rate and rectal temperature. Adverse effects, such as dermatitis, lameness and hock burn were not found in birds in all treatments groups

        A Study on Benefits Provided to Equine Owners through the Brooke Hospital for Animals in the District Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

        Hameed A., Aqeela Saghir¹*, SA. Muhammad², and Ashar Mehfooz²

        *¹Institute of Agriculture Extension & Rural Development, ²Dept. of Clinical Medicines and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.


        Pages: 30-33
        Livestock play central role in the livelihood and poverty alleviation of the rural poor of the country. It also uplifts the socioeconomic conditions of the rural masses. Working equines are important draught animals and are mainly used to pull carts and carry loads. The Brooke Hospital for Animals is helping the equine owners by providing veterinary assistance and in improving welfare of their animals. The Brooke Hospital for Animals (Pakistan) first started her work at Peshawar, in 1991 and later at district Faisalabad, in 2007. At the district Faisalabad, there are 13 community organizations (COs) working under the Brooke Hospital for Animals. The study the benefits by the Brooke Hospital for Animals, to the community members, six COs and 20 respondents from each selected CO, with a total of 120 respondents, were selected by random sampling technique. In order to collect the required data information, interviews were conducted as per Performa, from each selected respondent. The data collected was statistically analyzed using the computer software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Based on the computed results it was concluded that respondents got benefited from the Brooke Hospital for Animals through a wider range of its facilities. They were benefited through better medical treatment, improvement in animal health care, provision of medicines, group training meetings, technical assistance and facilities, management practice improvements, animal training facilities, balanced rationing, water conservation, improved housing system, more income generating activities, fodder storage, stable management, involving local farmers for planning extension activities and provision of vaccination/deworming activities.

        Amoebiasis: Prevalence, Treatment with Metronidazole and Nalidixic Acid in Dogs

        Ashar Mahfooz¹, Muhammad Aslam lqbal¹, Tanveer Ahmad¹, Sultan Mahmood², Muhammad Nisar Khan³, Asif Iqbal*³, Faisal Siddique**, Ghulam Abbas² and Muhammad Ijaz Saleem¹

        ¹Department of clinical Medicine and Surgery, ²Department of Poultry Science, ³Department of Parasitology, **Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040 Pakistan , Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan


        Pages: 34-37
        Present study was designed from March 2009 - April 2010 to determine the prevalence and treatment of amoebiasis in dogs. Three hundred (300) dogs’ fecal samples were examined for intestinal protozoan oocysts of which 27 (9 %) were found infected with .Entamoeba histolytica (H.A). The local dogs had the highest prevalence, 18 (6%), followed by exotic, 6 (2%), and of cross breeds, 3 (1%). Age and sex wise prevalence results showed that amoebiasis was higher in pups (age 3-l2 months) and female as compared to adults (age >l2 months) and male dogs, respectively. The fecal samples were examined using formol ether concentration method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and sodium chloride flotation method. Effect of Metronidazole and Nalidixic acid alone and in combination for diarrhea, dysentery and vomiting showed that Metronidazole has better results as compared to Nalidixic acid but the combination of these two is much better than Metronidazole alone. For this trial 27 dogs infected with amoebiasis were selected and divided into three equal groups, i.e. A, B and C. Dogs of group A received Metronidazole (Flagyl)® @ 20 mg/kg for 5 days. While group B received Nalidixic acid (Negram) 5 mg/kg for 5 days and group C received combination of Metronidazole (Flagyl)® @ 20 mg/kg I/V + Nalidixic acid (Negram)® @ 5 mg/kg orally, for 5 days. An evaluation criterion included was visual examination and microscopic examination of feces for presence or absence of parasite. Fecal samples and other clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, during course of disease, on 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7th day post treatment. The combination therapy comprising of Metronidazole and Nalidixic acid proved to be the best treatment as it reduce the severity of clinical signs all infected dogs.

        Effect of Varying Light Intensity on Immunity Level, Dressed Weight, Minor Body Parts Weight, Fat Deposition and Serum Glucose Level in Broilers

        Ghulam Abbas*, Sultan Mahmood, Fawwad Ahmad, Muhammad Yousaf, Razia Abdualmajeed Qureshi**², Sajid Hussain Qamar, Muhammad Zia ur Rehman², Muhammad Fiaz1 Muhammad Ijaz Saleem² Ashar Mahfooz², Muhammad Khurram Shahzad***, Muhammad Bilal**¹, Asif Iqbal³, and Faisal Siddique**

        *Department of Poultry Science; ¹Livestock and Dairy Development Department Pakistan ²Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery ³Department of Parasitology; **Institute of Microbiology, ***Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, **¹Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology; University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040-Pakistan, **²Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of Punjab, Pakistan
        *Corresponding author


        Pages: 38-42
        This project was designed to explore the effects of varying light intensity on the immunity level, dressed weight, minor body parts weight, fat deposition and serum glucose level in broilers. Five light treatments T1 (20 lux at first week and 5 lux from 2-6 week), T2 (20 lux at first week and 10 lux from 2-6 week), T3 (20 lux at first week and 20 lux from 2-6 week), T4 (20 lux at first week and 30 lux from 2-6 week) and T5 (20 lux at first week and 40 lux from 2-6 week) were given to 150 birds equally divided in groups A, B, C, D and E respectively. The chicks were divided into fifteen replicates, allotted to five treatments group. The results of the study revealed that light intensity affected dressed weight, abdominal fat weight, head weight, neck weight, liver weight, bursa weight and immunity level against infectious bursa; disease (IBD) significantly (P < 0.05) whilst dressing percentage, carcass fat weight, heart weight, spleen weight, gizzard weight, drumstick weight, serum glucose level and immunity level against Newcastle disease (ND) were found to be un-affected.

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