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  • Scholar's Advances in Animal and Veterinary Research
    SAAVR Current Issue (Vol: 02, Issue: 01)

    Accepted Articles

        Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment of Blood in Milk (Hemolactia) in Cow and Buffalo-A Clinical Review

        Ghulam Muhammad, Imaad Rashid and Qudratullah*

        *Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040-Pakistan
        *Corresponding Author


        Pages: 1-6
        Dairy farmers frequently approach practicing veterinarians for the treatment of cows or buffaloes producing milk which is reddish or pinkish due to the presence of blood. Farmers suffer from the economic loss because bloody milk is often rejected by the consumers. The condition is usually sporadic in occurrence but rarely several lactating animals may be affected at a time.

        Pathological Effects of Natural Babesiosis Infection: A Review

        Abdul Bari¹ , Gulbeena Saleem¹ and Imad Khan²

        ¹Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, ²Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan


        Pages: 7-14
        Babesiosis is a tick transmitted protozoal disease in most of the domesticated animal. It has negative impact over the production, weight gain and othe parameters of the body. This review has some information about the pathological changes produced due to this infection in small ruminants. Bhat et al. (2014) conducted a study to determined the prevalence of Babesia infection in apparently healthy animals from the province of Punjab, India. Results of examination of thin blood smears confirmed 2.45% animals to be positive for piroplasmosis of B. bigemina while genomic DNA isolated from the blood samples when subjected to primary PCR showing a positivity of 7.38 % was detected by the amplification of 278-bp product in the agarose gel. PCR products obtained from the primary PCR of B. bigemina, when engaged as template in nested PCR produced the amplicons of favored size (170 bp) was detected in 30.39 % of the samples. Ijaz et al. (2013) studied the prevalence of Babesiosis in sheep and goats in district Lahore and its urban peri-urban regions was investigated the efficacy of three different treatments was measured. A total number of 630 blood samples, out of which

        Effect of Electroacupuncture and Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation on Clinico-Neurological Parameters in Dogs Suffering from Hind Quarter Weakness

        Muhammad Moin Ansari¹* , Malik Mohammad Shamsuz Zama², Taziyun Imtiyaz¹,Sandeep Kumar², Gazalla Siraj¹ and Neelofar Nabi¹

        *¹Division of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir-190006, India. ²Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh- 243122, India.
        *Corresponding author: drmoin7862003@gmail.com


        Pages: 15-24
        The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture and transcutaneous electrical stimulation on clinico-neurological parameters in dogs (n = 24)suffering from hind quarter weakness. Animals were subjected to conventional drug therapy (group I, n=8) alone and in combination with electroacupuncture (group II, n=8) and transcutaneuous electrical stimulation (group III, n = 8). Dogs of conventional drug therapy group were treated with methyl prednisolone acetate dosed at 30 mg kg(-1) body weight intramuscularly on first day and later on 15 mg kg(-1) body weight intramuscularly on alternate days, meloxicam dosed at 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight intramuscularly daily, gabapentine and mecobalamine tablet, orally once daily and Vitamin B1 , B6 , B12 & and D-panthenol dosed at 2 mL intramuscularly on alternate day. The electrostimulation of acupoints {Bai Hui (GV-20), Bai Huan Shu (BL-30), Yang Ling Quan (GB-34), Zu San Li (ST-36), Zhi Yin (BL-67) and Chang Qiang (GV-1)} was done using 55-100 mA intensity, 50 Hz frequency and 9 volts dense and disperse wave current with a electroacupuncturescope. The electroacupuncture stimulation was given daily for 10 min. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation at 1.0 mA intensity and 100 Hz frequency, using 2 pole electrodes over the intervertebral foramen at lumber region, was given daily for 10 min. All the therapies were continued for 14 days. By day 14 of the therapy, all the animals regained their normal postural reactions in all the groups except hopping reaction in hind limbs, which was achieved only in 11 dogs (2 in group I, 5 in group II and 4 dogs in group III) on day 14 and in rest of them on day 28. Overall results indicated that there was a moderate to severe hind limb in-coordination from day 2 to 6. From day 7 onwards, dogs could stand with slight hind limb in-coordination and by day 14 they walked with near normal gait and normal clinical response. The dogs could stand and walk with complete clinical recovery on day 28. However, 1 dog in group I exhibited only mild improvement till day 28. Over all clinical improvement was excellent in 20 dogs (83.33 %), good in 3 dogs (12.50 %) and fair in 1 dog (4.16%). Overall results indicated the success rate as 95.83%. Only mild improvement in one dog till day 28 may be due to the advance symptoms of the disease and its delayed presentation to the Polyclinics (after 18 days of illness). Further, critical review of clinico-neurological parameters on individual animals suggested that excellent and statistically significant recovery was recorded in dogs subjected to electroacupuntcure along with con ventional drug therapy followed b y transcutaneous electrical stimulation along with conventional drug therapy and conventional drug therapy alone.

        Affect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Supplementation on Intestine Morphology and Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens

        Imad Khan¹, Dr. Hafsa Zaneb¹, Dr. Saima Masood¹, Hafiz Faseeh Ur Rehman¹, Muqader Shah¹, Ghulam Abbas¹, Salahud Din¹, Hafiz Yasir¹, Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf² and Kauser Shaheen³

        ¹Department of Anatomy and Histology, ²Department of Physiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. ³Civil Veterinary Hospital, Dheri Julagram Malakand, KPK, Pakistan.


        Pages: 25-31
        Moringa oleifera is an indigenous plant growing wild in Northern India and Pakistan. It was introduced into South-East Asia and now cultivated throughout the tropics (Hermogenes et al., 2012). Ogbe and John (2011) have mentioned that essential minerals and nutrients in Moringa oleifera leaves used as a source of feed supplement to improve growth performance and health status of broilers. The inclusion of protein from leaf source in diet for birds is quick attaining due to its accessibility in abundance and relatively cheap cost leaf meal do not only serve as protein sources but also provide some essential mineral, vitamins, oxycarotenoid that induce yellow coloration of broiler shank, skin and egg yolk (Onu and Aneibo, 2011). Akhouri et al. (2013) supplementation of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract in diet of broiler can be usefully used as an effective feed supplement for its supporting results in relation to feed conversion efficiency and body weight gain in the broilers. It is able to use potentially earlier than mass immunization of the broilers for immune-modulators property like levamisole.

        Fortnight Effect of Replacing Maize Gluten + Rice Bran (5:0) to Maize Gluten + Rice Bran (1:4) Feed Supplement on Physiochemical Characteristics of Water in Composite Culture System.

        Nasir Ahmd¹, Iftikhar Ahmad¹, Seyyeda Umme Farwa Naqvi¹, Ghulam Abbas²*, Syed Muhammad Adil Zafar², Khawar Hayat² and Ishtiaq Ahmad³

        ¹Department of Zoology and Fisheries UAF. ²Department of Poultry Science, UAF. ³Department of Statistics and Mathematics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.


        Pages: 32-40
        The research was conducted to envisage the fortnight effect of replacing maize gluten + rice bran (5:0) to maize gluten + rice bran (1:4) feed supplement on physiochemical characteristics of water in composite culture system. 100 Labeo rohita, 50 Cirrihina mrigla and 25 Ctenophayrngon idella were stocked in each of two earthen ponds, each measuring 30m * 16m* 1.5m (length*width*depth) named P1 and P2. Fishes in P1 was supplied maize gluten and rice bran with a ratio 5:0 whilst that of pond P2 was provided maize gluten and rice bran with a ratio 1:4. For the Limnological study, water samples were collected from different depths of ponds on fortnightly basis to measure phsiochemical profile of ponds. The results of the present study revealed that fortnights and feed supplements exerted significant influence on water temperature, pH, total carbonates, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity and planktonic biomass of both experimental ponds. maximum Planktonic biomass was recorded at 5th fortnight (335 mg L-1 ) during the month of July in p2. Dissolved oxygen content, light penetration, total dissolved solids and total bicarbonates of both the ponds showed significant variations fortnightly however feed supplement showed no effect on these parameters whilst total hardness, total calcium and total magnesium contents of pond water were not effected by either of fortnight or feed supplement. Total alkalinity was higher in P1 which supplied maize gluten and rice bran (1504) whilst total carbonates and Planktonic biomass was higher in P2 which was provided maize gluten and rice bran (1:4).

        Tick Infestation in Sheep: Prevalence, Associated Determinants and in vivo Chemotherapeutic Control in Central Punjab, Pakistan

        Asif Iqbal¹, Faisal Siddique², Nighat Fatima² and Ijaz Saleem³

        ¹Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan. ²Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan. ³Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, UAF.


        Pages: 41-54
        A total of 1200 sheep of various breeds, age and sex were randomly selected from Toba Tek Singh (T.T. Singh) and Jhang Districts of Central Punjab, Pakistan. The selected sheep were visited twice a month to collect information about determinants influencing sheep tick infestation prevalence. For acaricidal efficacy, 350 tick infested adult sheep were subjected to an acaricidal treatment and post-treatment quantitative assessment of tick burden. Quantification of adult tick detachment 24 h post-treatment and the duration of treatment efficacy were calculated. Overall prevalence of sheep tick infestation in both study districts was 64.25% (771/1200). The prevalence was higher in district T.T. Singh than in district Jhang. Tehsil-wise prevalence in district Jhang was highest in tehsil Jhang followed in order by Shorkot and Ahmed pursial. In district T.T. Singh, highest prevalence was found in tehsil T. T. Singh followed by Kamalia and Gojra. Hyalommamarginatum (76.00%; 586/771) and Rhipicephalusannulatus (24.00%; 185/771) were the predominant species in both the districts. The highest month-wise prevalence was 62% and 67% in Jhang and T.T. Singh districts, respectively, during July 2008, and the minimum (8%) prevalence was reported in November and December, respectively. Regarding host determinants, female sheep were more heavily infested (64.20%) than males (35.80%), and younger animals were (69.52%) more burdened than older ones (30.48%). Lohi sheep were the most susceptible breeds followed in order by Kajli, Crossbred, Thalli and Cholistani. The preferred sites of attachment were inside and outside of the ears. Both the ivermectin (IVM) and cypermethrin (CYM)-treated groups resulted in significantly lower (p < 0.05) tick counts relative to controls on all post-treatment counting days. The lowest tick burden in the IVM-treated group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to the CYM-treated group, the latter being close to zero. Hence, the in vivo efficacy trials of injectable IVM vs CYM pour-on revealed better results for the latter. These observations provided the first insights into what determinants impact sheep tick infestation and laid a foundation for planning of future control programs in the central Punjab, Pakistan.

        Epidemiological Aspects of Mite (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) Infestation in Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan

        Muhammad Nisar Khan¹, Muhammad Sohail Sajid¹*, Asif Iqbal¹ and Faisal Siddique²

        ¹Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan. ²Research Associate, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        *Corresponding author


        Pages: 55-63
        A total of 800 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) were screened from April, 2010 to March, 2011 from district Toba Tek Singh (T.T. Singh), Punjab, Pakistan for the epidemiology of mange. Over all prevalence of sheep mange was 11.37% (91/800). Psoroptes ovis (6.62%; p < 0.05; OR = 1.39) and Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis (4.75%) were the predominant species of mites in the study area. The infestation rate of mange was found positively associated with host determinants like (a) sex; being higher in ewes (67.03%; 61/91; p < 0.05; OR = 2.03) than rams (32.96%; 30/91), (b) age; significantly higher in young animals (57.14%; 52/91; p < 0.05; OR = 1.33) as compared to the adult animals (42.86%; 39/91) and (c) breed; highest (p < 0.05) in Cholistani (13%; 26/200) followed in decreasing order by Kajli (12.00%; 24/200), Thalli (10.50%; 21/200) and Lohi (10%; 20/200). Winter months (December-January) were found favorable for mites. Tehsil-wise prevalence was highest in T.T. Singh (15.78%; 42/266) followed in order by Kamalia (10.90%; 29/266) and Gojra (7.49%; 20/267). Microclimatic factors (farm management practices) like stall feeding (7.37%; 59/800; p < 0.05; OR = 1.84), closed housing system (5.12%; 41/800; p < 0.05; OR = 2.41), rope tied animals (7.62%; 61/800; p < 0.05; OR =2.03) and non- cemented (5.37%; 43/800; P < 0.05; OR = 2.26) floor were found highly associated with the prevalence of mites. Infested sheep bared let fall total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) and elevated levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and total serum proteins (TP). Differential leucocyte count (DLC) revealed striking eosinophilia in infested sheep. The present study demonstrates adequate background information for the sheep farmers and decision makers of the study area for planning affective mange control program in the study region. Chemotherapeutic trials of various compounds against the nuisance area still required to be done under the guidelines of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP).

        Bacteriological Examination of Some Ready-To-Eat Foods in Faisalabad with Special Reference to Listeria monocytogenese

        Iftikhar Hussain*, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood, Faisal Siddique and Ayesha Sarwar

        Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.
        *Corresponding author


        Pages: 64-69
        Rapid population, urbanization and changing life style are the major factors to used Ready-to-Eat (RTE) foods and numerous inhabitants meat their daily nutritional needs. This situation may be a risk for consumers due to microbial contamination in RTE foods. The microbiological quality as well as quantity of ready-to-eat food products sold in different streets and canteens in the city of Faisalabad was judged. A total of one hundred and twenty RTE food samples, including Daheebaray, Goal gappay, Fruit chat and Patties were collected from different canteens and streets in Faisalabad city between March and August, 2010. The most prevalent bacterial such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureu and Listeria monocytogenese were isolated and counted. The viable bacterial counts were 7.4x10(4) cfu mL(-1) , 3x10(4) cfu mL(-1), 2.5x10(4) cfu mL(-1) and 4x10(4) cfu mL(-1) for Daheebaray, goal gappay, fruit chat and patties, respectively. Precautionary measures and sanitary conditions were improved for the outbreak of food-borne diseases by the consumption of theses RTE foods.

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