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  • Scholar's Advances in Animal and Veterinary Research
    SAAVR Current Issue (Vol: 02, Issue: 02)

    Accepted Articles

        Novel Aspects of an Ancient Disease; Pollorum Disease

        Faisal Siddique*, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood1, Iftikhar Hussain1 and Asif Iqbal2

        1Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan, 2Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        *Corresponding Author: faisal1674@yahoo.com


        Pages: 70-75
        Salmonella pullorum is a most common disease in commercial as well as domestic poultry industry of Pakistan, which causes severe direct and indirect economic impact on the industry in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pullorum disease caused by Salmonella pullorum is a distinct septicaemic diseases mainly effects avian species. This review highlighted significance, mode of transmission, risk factors associated, genetic and immunological information, virulence and pathogenesis, resistance patterns of antibiotic, postmortem gross and microscopic lesion, diagnosis and control measures which will be facilitated to a better understanding for the eradication of the disease patterns.

        Haemonchosis in Small Ruminants: A Review

        Hafiz Muhammad Qasim
        *Corresponding Author: vet_drqasim@yahoo.com


        Pages: 76-89
        The small ruminants have a great economic importance in the world. Sheep and goats play a central role in the socio economic importance well-being of people and value addition in the economy of country by providing benefits in terms of nutrition, extra income, intangible advantages (savings, insurance against emergencies, cultural and ceremonial purposes) and support survival to poor-resource farmers in Pakistan. Throughout the developing countries, sheep and goats put together an extremely valuable contribution, particularly to the poor people in the rural areas. These contributions are the production of animal proteins (milk and meat) draught power in the highlands, skins and fiber production and food security to the people. But these contributions of small ruminants are limited as compared to the consumption by the people. Research and developmental investments are in working and in process but these contributors do not meet the requirement of the people especially in rural areas in developing countries.

        Comparative Evaluation of per Os and Parenteral Administration of Tribrissen(TM) in Equines Suffering from Bacterial Infections

        Qudratullah1*, Ghulam Muhammad1, Farrha Deeba1 and Muhammad Yaqoob2

        1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan 2Department of Livestock Management, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
        *Corresponding author


        Pages: 90-97
        Equines including horses, donkeys and mules are very important for the economy of Pakistan. Contaminated injury wounds and contagious respiratory infections result in an adverse effect on health and performance of these species. Tribrissen(TM) is an antibacterial agent effective against a wide spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The current study was planned to determine the comparative efficacy of per os and parenteral administration of Tribrissen(TM) in equines suffering from bacterial infections. All the three species were randomly divided into 2 equal groups A and B. Tribrissen(TM) 48% at 1 mL 30 kg-1 body weight was given parenterally to group A and per os to group B. Severity scores before and after five days of treatment were noted. All the forty animals showed highly significant decrease (P < 0.01) in their severity score after five days of the treatment with Tribrissen(TM). All the three species exhibited significant decrease in their severity score post treatment with Tribrissen irrespective of the route. Group A revealed a highly significant decrease (p < 0.01) in severity score in horses and donkeys after the treatment, whereas,

        Prevalence of Ticks Infesting Selected Domestic Livestock Population of Azad Jammu and Kashmir

        Nizhat Sultana1, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Majid Mahmood Majid5, Asim Shamim2, Asif Iqbal3* and Nazneen Bangash6, Usman Ali4

        1Department of Zoology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad, AJK, 2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences the University of Poonch (UOPR) Rawalakot, AJK, 3Departmet of Parasitology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 4Department of Zoology, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur, AJK, 5Department of Zoology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 6Department of Research and Development, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan.
        *Corresponding author


        Pages: 98-106
        During an investigation about epidemiological aspects of tick population infesting livestock of district Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, a total of 669 animals were screened (including 300 goats, 150 sheep, 110 cows and 109 buffaloes), from July to December 2012. Out of which, 346 (51.25%) animals were found infested with ticks. Only 699 tick specimens from sheep, goat, cow and buffaloes were successfully identified. Ticks belonging to four genera were found in different percentages. The most abundant genera observed were Hyalomma (39.19%), followed by Haemophysalis (27.46%), Otobious (26.32%) and Rhipicephalus (7.01%). The overall prevalence of ticks was recorded to be very high in the month of July (58.53%), followed by August (57.33%) and (56.48%) in the

        Pathogenesis of Anaplasmosis in Bulkhi Sheep and Their Confirmation with Polymerase Chain Reaction

        Ajab Khan1*, Gulbeena Saleem1, Mutiur Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Tufail2 and Saima Masood1

        1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 2Extension Department, Civil Veterinary Hospital Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 3Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Bio Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
        *Corresponding author: drajab22@gmail.com


        Pages: 107-114
        To investigate the prevalence of Anaplasmosis in Bulkhi sheep in district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2013-2014. In this study 100 animals were screened for anaplasmosis, those showing clinical signs, blood sample were taken and thin smear was formed, after Giemsa’s staining the slide is observed under microscope. The blood samples were also confirmed through PCR. Hematological changes were noted and the data was analyzed through SPSS software using descriptive statistics. The total number of 100 sheep was screened for Anaplasmosis through clinical signs. Out of 100 animals 40 shows clinicalsigns of anaplasmosis, out of 40 samples 28 were positive and 12 were negative through giemsa staining. All the Giemsa stain positive samples were also confirmed positive through PCR and also from 12 Giemsa stain negative samples 06 were positive and 07 were negative through PCR. The hematologicalstudies of the positive cases showed that there is significant decrease in RBC, Hgb, PCV and MCH values while there is no difference in WBC, MCV and MCHC as compared to the control groups which were negative for any types of blood parasite. Histopathological study of Anaplasma positive animal shows that retention of bile, infiltration of mononuclear cells in liver while in spleen there was hemosiderosis, increased red pulp with massive proliferation of Lymphocytes and numerous histocytes. Anaplasmosis is prevailing in Bulkhi sheep in and around Peshawar district which is the major causes of the changes in hematology causes normocytic hypochromic anemia in Anaplasma positive animals.

        The Incidence of Helminth Parasites in Donkeys in and Around of Faisalabad City

        Rao Muhammad Siddique1, Asif iqbal2*, Muhammad Sohail1

        1Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 38040, Faisalabad. 2Research associate, Department of parasitology, university of agriculture, Faisalabad.
        *Corresponding author: asif_chm@yahoo.com


        Pages: 115-116
        Out of 120 faecal samples, 94 (78.33%) were found to harbour various types of gastro-intestinal parasites. Most of the donkeys were having more than one type of parasitic infestation simultaneously. Overall infestation with Strongylus sp. (25%) was most common followed by Parascaris sp. (19.17%), Strongyloides sp. (14.17%), Trichonema sp. (14.12%), Parafilaria multipapillosa (8.33%), Oxyuris sp. (5.03%), Dictyocaulus sp. (3.33%) and Triodontophorus sp. (2.5%).

        Renal Clearance and Urinary Excretion of Cefspan® in Healthy Male Volunteers

        Majid Anwar1, Bilal Aslam1, Muhammad Mudassar Ashraf1 and Ahmad Raza1*

        1Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
        *Corresponding author


        Pages: 117-122
        Cefixime, a cell wall synthesis inhibitor, is a third generation and orally acting cephalosporin. It is excreted unchanged in urine. It was very important to study cefixime for evaluation of optimum renal clearance and urinary excretion in local subjects. For this purpose, cefspan® 400mg capsule was given orally in ten human healthy male volunteers. Blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and drug concentration in the samples was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Urinary excretion and renal clearance of cefixime was calculated and data was statistically analyzed by using Regression/correlation technique. At 0.01 ml/min/kg (mean diuresis) and 6.24 (mean urinary pH) the Mean±SE renal clearance of cefspan® following its single oral administration in 10 healthy volunteers was noted as 0.15±0.03 ml/min/kg and clearance ratio was calculated as 0.32±0.06 which indicates the back diffusion of drug. The renal clearance of cefixime increased with increase in urinary pH and diuresis whereas increase in plasma drug concentration had inverse relationship with renal clearance of cefixime. The lower urinary excretion of cefixime (13%) was observed in local population showing environmental or gender variation.

        Sero-Epidimiology and Molecular Approaches for the of Local isolates of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Poultry birds of Pakistan

        Sidra Hafeez1*, Ikram-ul-Haq1, Maida Manzoor2 and Abdul Wahab1

        1Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Government College University Lahore, Pakistan 2Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        *Corresponding author: sidraravian@hotmail.com


        Pages: 123-127
        Avian influenza (AI) viruses subtype such as H5 and H9 have the ability to destroy poultry industry around the globe. Sero-prevalence and molecular diagnosisthrough RT-PCR of Avian Influenza Viruses in different poultry farms of district Lahore, Pakistan was determined. Five hundred samples including tracheal, cloacal swabs, spleen and liver were collected from different poultry farms surrounding Lahore division, Punjab, Pakistan. The samples were inoculated for 9-10 days old embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation. After 24 h, Allantoic fluid was collected of each of the embryos and subjected for Haemagglutination (HA) test. Out of five hundred samples, 56% positive for influenza virus and 44% were negative by spot Haemagglutination test. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test also confirmed HA positive isolates as avian influenza viruses, using specific sera. For HI positive samples, RNA was extracted and purified by kit method and quantified by thermo scientific NanoDrop spectrophotometer ND-2000. Then, RT-PCR was used for further confirmation of H9 and H7 subtypes by using haemagglutinin specific primers. These primers amplified a nucleotide fragment of 221 and 406 bp from haemagglutinin protein of highly pathogenic avian influenza H9 and H7 subtypes, respectively.

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