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  • Scholar's Advances in Animal and Veterinary Research
    SAAVR Current Issue (Vol: 02, Issue: 03)

    Accepted Articles

        Control of Mastitis through dry cow therapy: A Review

        Tanveer Ahmad*1, Atif Nadeem1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem2, Muhammad Nadeem2, Muhammad Saqib2

        1Department of Clinical Medicine & Surgery, University of agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
        2Faculty of veterinary Science, arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi sub campus Khushab.
        3Department of Poultry Science, University of agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

        *Department of Clinical Medicine & Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan. Ph: 0092-333-6584658;
        Email: tanveeruaf@gmail.com


        Pages: 128-135
        Mastitis is considered one of the significant productions limiting disease of dairy animals of underdeveloped and developing countries. It is a common problem right after parturition as most of udder infections occur during dry period. In countries like Pakistan which lacks adaptation of modern techniques have higher incidents of mastitis. Mastitis can be controlled by adopting modern techniques like teat dipping, use of vaccine, regular use of SCC at farm at individual level and dry cow therapy etc. Dry cow therapy is one of the most important and easy technique among the above mentioned control measures. The aims of dry cow therapy include elimination of current infection and prevention from new infections. Recently, dry cow therapy is being practice via two different techniques i.e. use of intra mammary and systemic administration of antibiotics prior to calving (dry period). Systemic administration of antibiotics at drying off or some weeks before parturition looks to be nominal accompanying treatment for intra-mammary therapy, which may advisable for practice. Some animals are very sensitive and do not allow to touch their tear and udder. Such animals are good candidates for such kind of therapy. Systemic administration of antibiotics during dry period may be better alternate to the intra mammary therapy in animals like buffalo having tight teat sphincter.

        Comparison of Intravenous and Inhalation Anesthesia for Performing Minor and Major Surgeries in Sheep and Goat

        Hafiz Muhammad Qasim*1, Muhammad Imran Ibraheem1

        11Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
        *Corresponding author:
        Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan,
        Tel. No.: +92 304 4454332
        Email; vet_drqasim@yahoo.com
        Keywords: inflammatory, hepatoprotective, blood pressure, renal


        Pages: 136-145
        In the septic conditions as well as results of inflammatory process, anaesthetics drugs influence function of different organs in reply to these pathological changes. Various anaesthetics drugs called as less hepatoprotective such as isoflurane for the reason that it shows further response towards these pathological changes and cause liver injuries. This articles emphasized the chemical characteristics of Ketamine, tissue distribution and elimination, xylazine with ketamine anesthesia, effects of Xylazine-Ketamine administration on arterial blood pressure, cardiopulmonary effects of xylazine, effect of Ketamine–xylazine on cerebral blood flow, Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and xylazine, effect of xylazine-ketamine on renal functions, sedative and clinical effects of xylazine, cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane and Isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia, tissue distribution and elimination, effects of isoflurane on cardiovascular system and effects of isoflurane anaesthesia on renal and hepatic function of drugs.

        Carcass Characteristics and Beef Composition of Thari cow calves under the influence of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)

        M.N. Sanjrani1, A.B. Kachiwal*2, M. Malhi2, A.G Arijo2 and S.A. Saghir2

        1Livestock and Fisheries, Government of Sindh, Pakistan
        2 Sindh Agriculture Uinersity Tandjam, Pakistan

        Keywords: rbST, Fattening ration, Thari cow calves, carcass, beef, Blood.


        Pages: 146-161
        Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on feed and energy intake, feed efficiency, daily weight gain, carcass traits, quality and composition of beef in Thari breed calves. Sixteen male Thari breed cow calves of weighing 40+5 kg live body weight (approximately 16 ± 2 wks of age) were purchased from local animal market located at a distance of 40 km from Tandojam. They were randomly divided into two groups, placing eight animals in control group on scientific balance ration containing 18% crude protein and eight in treatment group on scientifically balanced ration containing 18% CP and rbST treatment @ 1.0 mg/kg b.w. Data was collected on the proforma starting from 20 weeks and continued for (36 wks) at veal stage and 52 weeks at beef stage. The body weight gain significantly enhanced (P ≤ 0.01) in rbST treated calves as compare to control calves. The body condition score (BCS) showed transient increase in rbST treated calves but there was no significant difference in BCS of rbST treated and control calves. The colour, odour, flavor, juiciness, and firmness was better in beef of rbST treated animals than control animals. The carcass physical and chemical characteristics of beef were significantly different from control group animals than rbST treated animals. The results of moisture contents, dry matter, ash, organic matter and crude protein were statistically non significant in between the beef of control and rbST treated animals. It is concluded that the use of rbST as growth promoter is better for Thari cow calves in respect to obtain better beef quality, quantity and net profit..

        Assessment of Insulin and insulin resistance in dairy cattle with displaced abomasum before and after surgery

        Arafat Khalphallah*1, Ahmad A. Aamer1, Tharwat AbdelAll1, Haduki Katoh2, Shin Oikawa2, Ken Nakada2, Enas Elmeligy1

        1Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt.
        2Department of Veterinary Herd Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan.

        *Corresponding author:
        E-mail: arafatvet2003@yahoo.com (Arafat Khalphallah).
        Tel.: +201283888020. Fax: +20882366503.

        Keywords: Dairy cattle, displaced abomasum, insulin, insulin resistance, RQUICKI.


        Pages: 162-176
        Displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cattle is a multifactorial disease, with the majority of cases being diagnosed within the first week postpartum. The study aimed to describe the changes in clinical findings, serum levels of insulin, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) as well as assess insulin resistance in Holstein dairy cattle with DA throughout a long term study from day 0 until day 30 after operation. The study was conducted on DA cattle (n= 25) belonged to dairy farms in Hokkaido area, Japan. Cows were examined and sampled at days 0 (operation), 7 and 30. They were clinically and biochemically examined to estimate body condition score (BCS) and serum insulin, glucose and NEFAs. Insulin resistance was measured by using Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI). Based on blood ß-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) at day 0, DA cows were classified into three categories; DA only [< 1.2 mmol/l], DA with subclinical ketosis (DA SCK) [1.2-2.4 mmol/l] and DA with clinical ketosis (DA CK) [ ≥ 2.5 mmol/l]. The clinical findings including body condition score (BCS) showed no significant changes either in between the three diseased groups or within the same diseased group at different sampling days (days 0, 7 and 30). Development of hypoinsulinaemia in all DA cases where the diseased cows need much more time than 30 days follow up to restore their physiological insulin level. RQUICKI values were not significantly reduced and were still within the physiological reference range throughout the present study in all DA groups. Changes in blood NEFA indicated significant effect of surgical operation and 30 day follow up period on the recovery of most diseased DA cattle.

        An Elucidation of Ecoepidemiological Aspects of Ectoparasites Infesting Selected Dog Population of Punjab, Pakistan

        Junaid Ashraf, Muhammad Sohail Sajid*,
        Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan

        *Corresponding Author:
        Assistant Professor, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        Ph: 0092-333-6508667
        Email: drsohailuaf@hotmail.com

        Key words: Prevalence, Risk factors, Dog, Ectoparasites, Faisalabad


        Pages: 177-188
        A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the epidemiological aspects of ectoparasites in dog population of district Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites in dogs of study area was recorded 56.75% (681/1200). Among various ectoparasites, fleas were found predominant (16.3%; 196/1200; P < .05) in comparison with ticks (14.33%; 172/1200), lice (11.3%; 136/1200), flies (7.66%; 92/1200) and mites (7.0%; 85/1200). Among the identified species of ectoparasites, 5 were arachnids (Rhipiephalus (R.) sanguineus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, R. microplus, Sarcoptes scabei and Demodex canis) and 5 were insects (Ctenocepahlides (Ct). canis, Ct. felis, Trichodectes canis, Linognathus setosus and Stomoxys calcitrans). Age, sex and breed of host were not found associated (P > 0.05) with the prevalence of ectoparasites. The prevalence of ectoparasites was found significantly higher in rural areas (61.83%) as compared to the urban areas (38.16%). According to site of infestation, highest rate was observed at ear (24%) followed in order by neck (17%), back (11%), abdomen (9%), foreleg (7%), hind leg (6%), shoulder (5%), genital area (5%) and tail (3%). Tehsil wise prevalence was found highest in Jaranawala (62.91%) followed in order by tehsil Faisalabad (59.58%), Jhumra (59.16%), Samundri (55.41%) and Tandlianwala (46.66%). Rate of infestation was found significantly highest in stray dogs (80.36%) in order followed by guard (63.69%), hunting (37.5%) and pet dogs (35.66%). In various season studied in the present survey, winter was with the highest prevalence of lice (18.66%; 56/300), fleas (11.66%; 35/300) and mites (13%; 39/300) while prevalence of ticks and flies was highest in summer (28%; 84/300) and spring seasons (17.66%;53/300), respectively. In conclusion, dogs were found at high risk of ectoparasitism which may leads to serious skin problems in the study area.

        Efficacy Of Different Anesthetic Coktails During Scrotal SAC Ablation Surgery In RAMS and BUCKS; Review

        Muhammad Abid Hayat*1, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim1

        1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.
        *Corresponding author:
        Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan, Tel. No.: +92 3318687383
        Email; abidbagra.uvas@gmail.com


        Pages: 189-196
        The Failure to attain complete involution of the testicular parenchyma was experimented majority of lambs, irrespective of the age at which they had been castrated. In winding up, burdizzo castration under local anesthesia increased acute-phase proteins and plasma cortisol, and suppressed immune function as well as growth rates. This review highlighted, cardiovascular effects of Xylazine-Ketamine-Midazolam, effects of Xylazine-Ketamine-Midazolam on renal and hepatic function, isoflurane inhalation anaesthesia, chemical characters, tissue distribution and elimination, effects of isoflurane on cardiovascular system, effects of isoflurane anaesthesia on renal and hepatic function and ultrasonographic appearance of testicles.

        Obesity in children and digital media

        Hafiza Nida Rehmat1, Dr. Sanaullah1, Dr. Mansur-ud-Din Ahmed1

        1Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Outfall road, Lahore, Pakistan
        *Corresponding author:
        16-B, Zaman Park, Sabzazar B block, Lahore, Email: hafizanidarehmat04@gmail.com,
        Cell: 0333-4387001.
        Keywords: Childhood, obesity, digital media, physical activity, sedentary behavior


        Pages: 197-204
        Children are living in an electronic environment where the extensive use of the media devices increases their sedentary behavior and eventually they become obese. The obesity epidemics are increasing gradually day by day. The basic purpose of the study was to take on a review of association between obesity in children and digital media. In March 2015, a search for original articles was formed using Google Scholar, PUBMED and Science Direct. Three separate search engines were used 1. Obesity epidemics in children 2. Childhood obesity and digital media 3. Effect of screen time and food advertisements on children. Results of various studies indicates that digital media has direct association with obesity in children. The possible factors are: 1) Extensive use of digital media reduces physical activity and increase sedentary behavior. 2) Television watching during meal time is related to mindless eating. 3) Food advertisements influence food choices like nutrient poor diet and high calorie foods. The conclusion of the review is; the relationship of watching television and obesity is controversial but childhood obesity is positively associated with playing video games. On the other hand, food advertisements and food consumption during meal time is positively related to obesity in childhood. Some of the interventions are being done by the researchers on short term basis but there is need to investigate further ways for the long term interventions. Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior help children to lose their weight and fight against the health related complications.

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