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  • Scholar's Advances in Animal and Veterinary Research
    SAAVR Current Issue (Vol: 02, Issue: 04)

    Accepted Articles

        Improving the profitability of dairy farmers by artificial induction of lactation in dry barren (infertile) dairy cows and buffaloes: A mini review

        Ghulam Muhammad, Imaad Rashid1, Sehrish Firyal and Muhammad Saqib*

        1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
        *Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
        e.mail: immad.rasheed@hotmail.com


        Pages: 205-211
        Hundreds of thousands of high producing dairy cows and buffaloes are culled every year because they fail to become pregnant due to a variety of reproductive problems (e.g. repeat breeding, anoestrus, chronic cervicitis, pyometra, or congenital abnormalities like freemartinism, underdeveloped ovaries or genitalia), anatomical defects (e.g. persistent Mullerian ducts) and hormonal dysfunction (e.g. cystic ovaries; Chantaraprateep et al., 1990). About 27 to 47% dairy cows are culled due to reproductive problems (Allaire et al., 1977; Nahms, 1996). It is a problem all over the world. Artificial induction of lactation by hormonal treatment/other drugs can reduce the economic losses to the farmers due to infertility/sterility of the high producing dairy cows and buffaloes. Induction of lactation by hormonal treatment of nonbreeding cows has been found to be more profitable than to purchase replacement heifers (Kensinger, 2000). This technology can be used as a profitable management tool to help the dairy farmers in reintroducing dairy cows with high milk production ability (but suffering from nonresponsive reproductive problems) back into the herd (Ramgattie et al., 2014).

        Microbial narrative of Lipase enzyme and Industrial Uses; A review

        Irsa Zafar
        Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

        *Corresponding Author:


        Pages: 211-227
        Lipases are enzymes which catalyze the triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids. Microbial lipases are commercially significant due to their vast uses in many industries of Pakistan such as detergent, pharmaceutical, dairy, leather, cosmetic etc. Lipase enzyme was characterized at different physical parameters like pH, temperature, incubation time and with different substrates. Enzyme activity was checked using appropriate substrate. Lipase has three dimensional structures and plays a very important role in biotechnology and also has industrial applications. Bacteria which produce lipase are Gram-positive bacteria and Gram- negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria includes Bacillus which is rod-shaped bacteria, various species of Bacillus are Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus stearothermophillus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus brevis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus thermoleovorans.

        Microbial burden and drug residual analysis in raw meat samples from different towns of Faisalabad, Pakistan

        Neelma Ashraf*1, Prof. Dr. Iftikhar Hussain1, Faisal Siddique1

        1Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 038040-Pakistan
        *Corresponding author:
        Email; neelmaashraf@hotmail.com
        Keywords: inflammatory, hepatoprotective, blood pressure, renal


        Pages: 228-237
        Poultry and livestock sector play a significant role in the economy of Pakistan. Food borne pathogens and antibiotic residue present in meat are major human health concern. The irrational use of antibiotics in poultry as well as animal farms could be the possible cause of bacterial resistance and there residual effects in meat. Research was planned to estimate microbial burdens and to investigate the drug residues in meat. To this end, a total 240 different meat samples including white meat (n=80), beef (n=80) and mutton (n=80) were collected and brought to the industrial microbiology lab, Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad for analysis. Then different food-borne pathogens were isolated, identified and characterized by using different cultural, morphological and biochemical tests. It was observed that out of 240 samples the bacterial contaminants were found in 84.58% samples. Out of these contaminants 54.58% were positive for Salmonella eteritidis, 53.75% were positive for E.coli, 27.08% were positive for Staphylococcus aureus and 17.08% were positive for Bacillus subtilis. From 80 collected poultry samples Salmonella enteritidis was present in 72.60% samples, Escherichia coli was present in 57.53% samples, Staphylococcus aureus was present in 24.65% and Bacillus subtilis was present in 15.06% samples. The incidence of Salmonella enteritidis, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis in beef samples was 60.86%, 55.07%, 37.68% and 26.08% respectively while the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis in mutton samples was 59.01%, 63.93%, 34.42% and 17.39% respectively. Microbiological inhibition assay was for the detection of antibiotic residues in different categories of meat samples. Stock solution of gentamicin, streptomycin and oxytetracycline was prepared by using serial dilution method. Zone of inhibition was measured through vernier caliper and a standard curve was plotted. It was assumed that the samples having the drug residual level greater than MRL (maximum residual limit) values were considered as positive while those having drug residual level less than MRL value were taken as negative. Data was analyzed statistically through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results revealed the presence of gentamicin, streptomycin and oxytetracycline residues in all categories of meat samples. The minimum inhibitory concentration of streptomycin, gentamicin and oxytetracycline was 0.0380, 0.059 and 0.0654 g/ml respectively. 77.50% of the collected samples had detectable levels of these antibiotic residues, 25.41% samples were having the residues of streptomycin while gentamicin was detected in 14.58% samples. The oxytetracycline residues were detected in high number of samples i.e. 41.66%. Out of 80 poultry samples streptomycin, gentamycin and oxytetracycline was detected in 30%, 20% and 32.5% respectively while beef samples 51.25% were having the detectable level of oxytetracyline while the percentage of streptomycin and gentamicin in collected beef samples was 20% and 10% respectively. Mutton samples were having the residues of streptomycin, gentamicin and oxytetracycline in percentage 26.25%, 13.75 and 41.25% respectively.

        In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from chicken eggs in Faisalabad

        Anum Rasool*1, Prof. Dr. Iftikhar Hussain, and Muhammad Shahid 1

        1Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 038040-Pakistan
        *Corresponding author:
        Email; anum_1313@yahoo.com


        Pages: 238-246
        Microorganisms are the main cause of food-borne illnesses in humans that may occur by consuming unhygienic food products from poultry and other sources. With the passage of time bacterial resistance to antibiotics is ever-increasing which necessitates development of new antibiotics. One of the most obvious reasons of antimicrobial resistance in humans is consumption of unhygienic food that is contaminated with bacteria and antibiotic residues. The aim of present study is to isolate, identify and characterize different food-borne pathogens from chicken eggs. For this purpose, a total of 240 egg samples were collected from eight different towns of Faisalabad. Samples were collected from egg surface, yolk, albumin and egg tray. Isolation, identification and characterization of commonly occurring egg borne pathogens including E. coli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus was conducted by different cultural, morphological and biochemical tests. Antibiotic resistance pattern of recovered bacterial pathogens was determined by disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). Zone of inhibition was measured through vernier calliper. The results revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella eneritidis (40.83%), following Staphylococcus aureus (22.08%), Escherichia coli (17.92%) and Bacillus subtilis (2.5%). The antibiotic sensitivity test showed different resistance patterns of the isolated microbes. Five different drugs were used that include cefotaxime, tetracycline, gentamicine, levofloxacin and penicillin. Bacillus subtilis was highly resistant to penicillin and cefotaxime. E. coli showed resistance to three antibiotics that were tetracycline, cefotaxime and penicillin. The only drug to which Staphylococcus aureus showed resistance was cefotaxime. Salmonella was resistant to tetracycline and gentamicine. The study concluded that chicken egg is contaminated with a number of bacteria that could be pathogenic or not. So there is need of proper attention to cope up with possible future egg-borne illnesses.

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