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  • Scholar's Advances in Animal and Veterinary Research
    SAAVR Current Issue (Vol: 03, Issue: 01)

    Accepted Articles

        Past and present trends in veterinary education in Pakistan and some suggested remedial measures

        Ghulam Muhammad., Imaad Rashid, Sehrish Firyal*, Farrah Deeba, Muhammad Saqib and Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1

        *Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
        1Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

        *Corresponding author:


        Pages: 1-6
        The responsibilities of veterinary profession are deeply rooted in our society’s need for wholesome food in adequate amounts, animal companionship, human health and well-being. As enunciated in the remarks of M.Martinez Baez cited here from Schwabe (1984), “The final objective of veterinary medicine does not lie …. in the animal species that the veterinarian commonly treats. It lies very definitely in man, and above all in humanity” As veterinarians, we ought to play an important role in optimizing food animal production by protecting the health of animals and by helping to ensure that the food of animal origin is free of potential agents of human diseases (zoonotic pathogens) and free of residues of medicaments used to treat animals. Through treatment and control of diseases of companion animals (pets), we fulfill another important need of the society. Research on animal diseases (many of which also occur in human) is yet another dimension of veterinary activity, the breakthroughs and findings of which may have potential spin-off applications in human medicine. Five years DVM degree program with the objective of producing a well- rounded veterinarian (well-versed with both production and animal health aspects) was initiated in 2003. This program has recently been revised under directive of Pakistan Veterinary Medical Council and Higher Education Commission. However, there are some glaring deficiencies/inadequacies in this program, some of which have been discussed (along with the recommendations to address these) in the ensuing part of this article.

        Biodiesel as an emerging energy demands and eproduction with special reference to Algal Species; A Review

        Nighat Fatima*, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood1, Faisal Siddique2, Asif Iqbal3

        1Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        2Department of Microbiology, University of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
        3 Department of Parasitology, Riphah College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

        *Corresponding author:
        Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        E-mail: drnighatfaatima@yahoo.com


        Pages: 7-21
        The world has moved towards the energy crisis due to much more use of resources. In last century there was total reliance on fossil fuels for fulfilling the energy demand. It has been estimated that approximately, two billion gallons’ diesel is consumed in Pakistan annually. And as we know Pakistan depend greatly on foreign oil so the only solution of this problem is to seek new resources for decreasing energy crisis. In Pakistan the production of crude oil is 58000 barrels per day but even entire production is advanced but it will fulfill the 14 % of national demand. The Government of Pakistan tried to replace it with 5% use with biodiesel. In these renewable fuels biodiesel has so much importance. It is ecofriendly fuel due to its expedient effect on atmosphere. Paying attention to world energy demand, decreasing petroleum reserves, and mainly global warming effects, there is a requirement to produce such type of fuels that should be less pollutant and fulfill the world energy requirement. There are mainly two ways for the production of biodiesel i.e. agriculture crops including soybean, sunflower, rapeseed and palm as well as microbes such as methanogens and microalgae. Among microbes, microalgae produced huge amount of biofuels because of more oil contents present in it, fast growth rate and increased biomass production. The main objective of this project was production of biodiesel from Algae.

        Nutritional Indicators in Holstein Dairy Heifers Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus with Referring to Changes in Lipid Profile, Tumor Necrosis Factor-a and Acute Phase Proteins

        Arafat Khalphallah1, Shin Oikawa*2, Masato Motokawa3, Ken Nakada2, Katsuro Hagiwara4, Ahmad A. Aamer1, Tharwat AbdelAll1, Enas Elmeligy5

        1Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt.
        2Department of Veterinary Herd Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan.
        3 Chuoh Livestock Service Center, Iwate Prefecture, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173, Japan.
        4 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan.
        5 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt.

        *Corresponding author:
        Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt
        E-mail: arafatvet2003@yahoo.com
        Keywords:Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, TNF-a, heifers, syncytial virus, respiratory infection.


        Pages: 22-34
        In both experimental and natural calf pneumonia serum lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity is reported to decrease, which may be due to involvement of cytokines in respiratory infection. This study aimed to evaluate whether a similar phenomenon occurs in dairy heifers naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and, in addition, to assess the relevance of LCAT to other metabolites, including tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-a). An outbreak of BRSV infection happened in 12 dairy heifers on a farm and sera were obtained at days 0, 3, 7 (acute phase), 22 (convalescent phase) and 50 (postconvalescent phase). Serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and a1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were remarkably increased in the acute phase, which reflected the severity of the inflammatory process due to pneumonia. However, they gradually decreased after therapy and returned to normal from day 22. Reduced serum activities of LCAT and increased serum concentrations of TNF-a were also found at days 3 and 7, respectively, compared with the postconvalescent day (day 50). This reduced LCAT activity is considered to be related to the increase of serum TNF-a because TNF-a inhibits the synthesis of mRNA of LCAT in the liver. On the other hand, the significant elevation of the serum apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentration at day 0 compared with day 50 may suggest that there is also an increased serum Hp concentration because apoA-I has affinity for Hp. The change of serum LCAT activity found in this study is involved with the changes of TNF-a, apoA- I and Hp in inflammatory pathogenesis.

        Mutational effects of thermo-stable a-amylase producing Bacillus species

        Abdal Inam-ul- Haq,*, Iftikhar Hussain,1

        11 Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan

        *Corresponding author:
        Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        Keywords: Temperature; Fermentation; pH; Mutation; Strain


        Pages: 35-41
        Enzymes have the great importance in different industries like pharmaceutical, leather, bakery, alcohol production, detergent, textile and paper industry. Amylases are important hydrolase enzymes which have been widely used since many decades. In the present study a- amylase producing Bacillus specie was isolated by potato baiting technique and characterization was done by cultural, morphological and biochemical tests. Thermostable a- amylase producing strain was selected by determining the optimal enzyme activity through the DNS reagent. Glucose concentration per ml determined by the Benedict reagent. Mutation was carried out by the UV irradiation, ethidium bromide. UV light exposure for different range of time (15-120 minutes) was used. Enzyme thermostability at 10-110°C was estimated. a-amylase production at different ranges of pH like 4-9 was also determined. Wild and mutant strain comparison on the basis of temperature, pH and incubation time were done. Mutant strain produce 2 times higher enzyme production as compare the wild strain. Mutation created by the UV light and ethidium bromide produce the highly thermostable enzyme. Mutant bacteria produce the maximum enzyme at 8.0 pH while parent strain produce at neutral pH. It was significantly noticed that ethidium bromide mutation indicate that chemical agent was best for the higher enzyme production, higher stability up to 110 0 C at 72 hours of fermentation time (p < 0.05). Submerged fermentation for ??-amylase production was used instead of solid state fermentation.

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