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  • Scholar's Advances in Animal and Veterinary Research
    SAAVR Current Issue (Vol: 03, Issue: 02)

    Accepted Articles

        Thermostable Vaccines: A new Horizon in Poultry Industry; A Review

        Faisal Siddique*1, Asif Iqbal2, Maida Manzoor2

        1 University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
        2 Riphah College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore
        3 3 Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan

        *Corresponding author:
        University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
        Email: faisal1674@yahoo.com
        Cell: 0092-333- 6629016
        Keywords: Thermostablity, Cold chain, Poultry farming, Shelf life


        Pages: 42-46
        Poultry farming is now one of the utmost primary and robust elements of the food production around the world. In Pakistan poultry farming is a developing industry following textile industry. Pakistan has a very large and locally domestic as well as commercial poultry sector and it has been expected that every 5th rural and urban family rear to poultry breed. Temperature has direct effect over the potency rate of vaccine. To overcome this issue cold chain systems have been established, so that the potency of vaccine can be maintained. But the maintenance of cold chain is so tough in developing countries. To overcome this problem, thermostable vaccines have been developed. The main objective of this article is to review the type of vaccines, significance of cold storage systems, causes of vaccine failures and importance of thermostable vaccines. These vaccines should be resistant to any destruction associated with very chilly or hot environment. This will decrease the dependence over cold chain. Encounters which can be faced at the application of these formulations are also discussed, as well as the potential paybacks and opportunities of taking vaccines out of the cold chain. For the mainstream of prevailing, frequently used vaccines, a shelf life of 1 year or longer at 2-8įC is possible. However, the vaccine sensitivity to expeditions outside of that range fluctuates generally.


        Abdal Inam-ul- Haq*, Iftikhar Hussain,1, Zahid Ali Tahir2

        1Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        2Veterinary Officer, Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Kamalia

        *Corresponding author:
        Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan


        Pages: 47-55
        Enzymes play vital role in human life which are essential because they are protein in nature to carry out many reactions. Amylases, lipases and proteases are most widely used enzymes. Amylase is one of enzyme which is used to disintegrate the carbohydrate. Eukaryotes like animals, plants and prokaryotes are source of production for amylase enzyme. It has great importance according to their utilization in their biotechnology and industrial field to help in preparation of textile, edible items like bread and other baking things. Their production rate is 30% over total enzymes in over all the world that show their importance.

        Cows with Heptaobiliary Diseases: Clinical, Biochemical and ultrasonographic Findings

        Arafat Khalphallah*1, Ali El-sebaie1, Mohammed Raghib1

        1Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt.

        *Corresponding author:
        Arafat Khalphallah (DVM, MVSc, PhD)
        Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt.
        E-mail: arafatvet2003@ yahoo.com.
        Tel.: +201283888020
        Fax: +20882366503
        Keywords: Cow, cirrhosis, liver, hepatobiliary, ultrasonography.


        Pages: 56-67
        The ultrasonound applications in cattle included diagnosis of cardiac, abdominal and musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to describe the most significant and diagnostic ultrasonographic findings of hepatobiliary diseases in cattle. This study was conducted on two groups of animals; control one (n=16) and diseased group (n= 21) at Assiut Veterinary Teaching Hospital (AVTH), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, whole blood profiling, blood serum biochemical assay and ultrasonographic examination. The use of ultrasonongraphy with the aids of other diagnostic tools could diagnose several heptobiliray diseases such as fatty liver infiltration, liver abscesses, liver fibrosis and in some cases of hepatobiliary obstruction such as hepatocholelithiasis and cholestasis.

        Prevalence of Mastitis in "Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (rbST)" Treated Herds of Dairy Buffaloes

        Hafiz Muhammad Arfan1*, Tanveer Ahmad1, Muhammad Saqib1, Kashif Saleemi2, Muhammad Raza Hameed3,

        1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine and Surger, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
        2 2Department of Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan 1BZU Multan, Pakistan

        *Corresponding author:
        E-mail: drhafizmarfan@gmail.com
        Keywords:rbST Bovine Somatotropin (rbST) Mastitis Buffaloes


        Pages: 68-78
        Buffaloes are black gold of Pakistan that has very high potential than what we are getting. Instead of overall increase in milk production by increase of number of animals, per animalís production has to be improved. Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (rbST) is product of biotechnology that has potential to increase milk production from 23 to 41% depending upon dose and managemental system. But before use of this technology its impact on animalís and consumerís health should be evaluated. The proposed study was conducted to determine the prevalence of mastitis in buffaloes being treated with rbST and its effect on quality of milk in term of somatic cell count (SCC). Milk samples from 300 buffaloes were collected (150 buffaloes rbST and 150 are non-rbST treated). Clinical cases were differentiated based on signs and symptoms while screening for subclinical mastitis was done by Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT). Data thus generated was subjected to Chi square test and ANOVA was determined.

        Comparative Effect of Azadirachta Indica, Moringa Oleifera and Cichorium Intybus Leaf Extracts on Growth Performance, Immune Response and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers

        Sultan Mahmood, Khawar Hayat, Muhammad Yousaf, Ghulam Abbas * , Atif Rehman,

        *Department of Poultry Science, University of agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

        *Corresponding author:
        E-mail: ghulamabbas_hashmi@yahoo.com
        Keywords: Broiler, Immune Response, Azadirachta Indica, Moringa Oleifera, Cichorium Intybus


        Pages: 79-84
        The intent of this study was to investigate the comparative effect of Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Cichorium intybus leaf extracts on growth performance, immune response, and carcass characteristics of broilers. In this study 180, day old broiler chicks were taken and raised together for a week as adaptation period. At 8 th day, 120 birds having middle weight range were selected for the experiment. These birds were randomly divided into four experimental groups A, B, C, and D. Each group was further divided into three replicates (10 chicks/ replicate). Group A was offered drinking water without any supplementation (control). Whereas groups B, C and D were offered drinking water supplemented with leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Cichorium intybus @ 50 ml/L, 30 ml/L and 10 ml/L, respectively. Results of the study showed that the birds given water supplemented with Azadirachta indica leaf extract (group B) exhibited better performance, immune response and some carcass characteristics along with increased profit margin when compared to all other treated or control groups. Therefore, it was concluded that Azadirachta indica leaf extract was an inexpensive but efficient herbal growth promoter to improve broiler performance without any residual or harmful effects.

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